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苹果手机新功能:报警时自动分享用户的精确位置

作者: (古诗文网)        2019-01-13 14:17

苹果手机软件即将推出新功能,允许用户与911分享自己的精确位置。

 

图 | CNN Wire

智能手机很清楚你的位置,它可以在繁忙城市里把汽车送到你所站立的位置,可以绘制你在丛林中晨跑的路线,可以在机场里为你导航。

但假如你用同样的手机拨打911,急救人员仅模糊地知道该把救护车、消防车或警车派到大致什么地方。

有时距离的差别就是生与死的差别。

苹果手机将在下一次软件更新时推出一项新功能,以向美国的紧急响应者发送即时、精确的位置信息。 这项功能今年晚些时候将出现在iOS12中,它可依据从WiFi接入点、附近基站和GPS收集的数据计算用户的位置。

棘手的部分不是找出来电者在哪里苹果公司自2015年以来一直在使用混合定位技术但把这些信息传递给为固定电话构建的分散、老化的911系统。

据美国国家紧急号码协会(NEMA)统计,每年拨打911的电话有2.4亿人次,超过80%来自移动设备。

苹果正在与一家名为RapidSOS的初创公司合作,该公司通过6300个应急响应部门使用的主要程序在全美专门共享手机的位置信息。RapidSOS为现有的911调度系统提供一体化免费软件升级服务。

这家公司星期一在纳什维尔召开的全国紧急号码协会 (NEMA)会议上宣布了这一消息。

“今年911系统已经有50年的历史了。它并没有进入数字时代,”RapidSOS的投资人、前美国联邦通讯委员会(FCC)主席汤姆惠勒如是说。

惠勒在联邦通信委员会任职以来一直在争取更准确的911定位信息,但直到2017年离开后才投资了RapidSOS。另外两名前美国联邦通讯委员会主席丹尼斯帕特里克和朱利叶斯杰纳考斯基也是投资人。

在紧急情况下,并不是所有的呼叫者都知道自己在哪里,有些人不能用语言表达自己的位置。他们可能有健康问题,或者不能说话,因为说话会使他们处于危险之中。在这种情况下,手机号码的呼叫,必须使用基站信息进行定位,基站通常有数百米的辐射半径。

在创伤后的第一个60分钟内获得医疗救助是防止死亡的关键。急救人员称这个时间段为“黄金时刻”。在2014年的一份报告中,联邦通信委员会估计,不充分的地理位置信息每年导致1万多人不必要的死亡。

该公司创始人兼首席执行官马丁(Michael Martin)说,在过去五年中,RapidSOS走访了全国数千家公共安全机构。挑战在于,如何在不减慢响应速度或不向调度程序加载信息的情况下,处理所有这些系统。

现在,当一个911中心收到一个使用RapidSOS技术的设备的电话时,调度员的软件会向RapidSOS数据库查询更多的数据。除了位置数据,RapidSOS可能还有其他数据,比如一个人的医疗记录。

该公司最近宣布与优步(Uber)合作,在叫车软件中增加了一个拨打911的按钮。谷歌最近与RapidSOS做了一个试点项目,但目前还没有在安卓系统(Android)中增加这个选项。

苹果公司表示,出于隐私方面的考虑,它不会提供来电者的姓名,只会在紧急情况下分享地址信息。该功能不能用于非紧急呼叫。在美国,所有iOS 12 苹果手机用户都将在默认情况下开机,但苹果公司表示,它将在设置中增加“退出选择”选项。

这并不是苹果的第一个紧急功能。今年早些时候,它将高级移动定位(AML)添加到iOS中,这是另一个将呼叫者的位置与紧急服务共享的标准。高级移动定位目前在美国没有得到支持,只在9个国家使用。

谷歌也有自己的技术版本,叫做安卓紧急定位服务(ELS),可以在最新的安卓手机上使用。它在14个国家使用,但在美国还不行。该公司表示,正努力在美国推出类似的服务。

苹果手机也有紧急SOS功能,它会在紧急情况下自动呼叫紧急服务、发短信并确定用户的位置。

Upcoming software update will let your iPhone share your exact location with 911

Your smartphone knows your location well enough to send a car to where you’re standing in a busy city, map a morning run through the woods, or navigate inside an airport.

But if you call 911 from that same mobile phone, emergency responders will only have a vague sense of where to send an ambulance, fire truck, or police car.

The difference in distances can be the difference between life and death.

Apple is rolling out a new feature in its next iPhone software update to send emergency responders instant, precise location information in the US. The update, coming in iOS 12 later this year, calculates a caller’s location based on data collected from WiFi access points, nearby cellular towers, and GPS.

The tricky part isn’t finding out where a caller is Apple has been using its hybrid location technology since 2015 but relaying that information to a fragmented and aging 911 system built for landlines.

Of the 240 million calls made to 911 each year, more than 80% are from mobile devices, according to NEMA.

Apple is working with a startup called RapidSOS, which specializes in sharing a cell phone’s location information to the major programs used by the 6,300 emergency response departments across the US. RapidSOS offers its integration as a free software update to existing 911dispatch systems.

The companies announced the feature Monday at theNational Emergency Number Association (NEMA) conference in Nashville.

“The 911 system is literally 50 years old this year. It has not made the evolution into the digital era,” said former FCC chairman Tom Wheeler, who is an investor in RapidSOS.

Wheeler has been pushing for more accurate 911 location information since he was at the FCC, but only invested in RapidSOS after he left in 2017. Two other former FCC chairmen, Dennis Patrick and Julius Genachowski, are also investors.

Not all callers in an emergency know where they are, and some cannot verbally communicate their location. They might be in medical distress, or unable to speak because it would put them in danger. In those cases, calls from mobile numbers have to be located using cell tower information from carriers, which can result in a radius of hundreds of yards.

Getting medical attention in the first 60-minutes after a traumatic injury is key to preventing death. Emergency professionals call this window the “golden hour.” In a 2014 report, the FCC estimated inadequate location information leads to more than 10,000 unnecessary deaths a year.

Over the past five years, RapidSOS has visited thousands of public safety agencies around the country, said founder and CEO Michael Martin. The challenge was finding the ways to work with all of those systems without slowing down responses or overloading dispatchers with information.

Now when a 911 center receives a call from a device using RapidSOS’s technology, the dispatcher’s software asks the RapidSOS database for more data. In addition to location data, RapidSOS might have other data like a person’s medical records.

The company recently announced a partnership with Uber, which adds a button for calling 911 inside of the ride-hailing app. Google did a pilot program with RapidSOS recently, but does not currently include the option in Android.

Apple says it will not provide the name of the caller and will only share the location information in an emergency, for privacy reasons. The feature can’t be accessed for non-emergency calls. It will be turned on by default for all iOS 12 iPhone users in the US, but Apple says it will add an opt-out option in settings.

This isn’t Apple’s first emergency feature. Earlier this year, it added Advance Mobile Location (AML) to iOS, another standard for sharing a caller’s location with emergency services. AML is not currently supported in the US, and only works in nine countries.

Google also has its own version of the technology, called Android Emergency Location Services (ELS), available on more recent Android phones. It works in 14 countries, but not in the US yet. The company says it is working toward launching a similar service in the US.

iPhones also have an emergency SOS feature, which automatically calls emergency services and texts any emergency contacts your location.

编译 | GeoTalks 

编辑|张磊           

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